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Biomarkers discovery

In 1998, the National Institutes of Health Biomarkers Definitions Working Group defined a biomarker as a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. 
The advent of multi-omics technologies (e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) has brought the hope of discovering novel biomarkers that can be used to diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of diseases. Data science has an important role in identifying biomarkers (biological markers) using data from Microarray and RNA-Seq experiments.
  

Diagnosis
Biomarkers detect or confirm the presence of a disease or medical condition or identify individuals with a subtype of a disease.
 
Prognosis
Biomarkers indicate the likelihood of a clinical event, disease recurrence or progression in patients who have a disease or medical condition.
 
Response to Treatment
Biomarkers show that a biological response to a treatment or exposure has occurred in an individual or to indicate individuals who are more likely that those without the biomarker to experience a favourable or unfavourable outcome from a treatment or exposure.
 
Monitoring 
Biomarkers detect the status of a disease or medical condition over time
 
Risk Assessment
Biomarkers indicate the potential for developing a disease or medical condition in someone who does not currently have that disease or medical condition.